The most common form of Prostate Cancer, is an uncontrolled proliferation of glandular type cells


The most common form of Prostate Cancer, is an uncontrolled proliferation of glandular type cells.

Journal of Nephrology and Urology is an Open Access peer-reviewed publication that discusses current research and advancements in diagnosis and management of kidney disorders as well as related epidemiology, pathophysiology and molecular genetics.

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Adenocarcinoma, the most common form of prostate cancer, is an uncontrolled proliferation of glandular type cells. Prostate cancer can grow and invade surrounding structures, obstruct the bladder outlet and metastasize widely often to bone where it causes painful lesions and pathological fractures. Obstruction can cause urinary retention which, if not relieved, can result in kidney damage. Although rare in men younger than 40 years, prostate cancer incidence increases with each subsequent decade and is present in virtually every man who reaches the ninth decade.

The prostate is under the control of androgens, and prostate cancer is generally androgen sensitive in its early stages. Thus, one of the effective ways to control metastatic prostate cancer is with androgen deprivation, either by surgical castration, or by pharmacologically blocking androgen release or its binding to cancer cells. Progression of prostate cancer following androgen deprivation therapy is, however, typical and therapeutic options thereafter are limited and largely ineffective in the long term.

Many prostate cancers are indolent, (i.e., they grow slowly and metastasize infrequently, and as such may not require aggressive treatment. However, a significant number of prostate cancer cases behave aggressively, which can lead to clinical symptoms, metastatic disease and death. Presently there is no effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer beyond palliation of its effects. Understanding the underlying biology and pathophysiology of aggressive prostate cancer is essential to the development of directed pharmaceutical treatments.

To improve treatment of men with prostate cancer, it is necessary to identify new targets, pathways and therapeutic modalities that are more discriminating than those used today. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the biological characteristics that define aggressive disease and develop biomarkers that will allow identification of truly indolent disease.5 Understanding the genetic and epigenetic features, as well as the intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways that determine susceptibility, disease progression and treatment outcomes for clinically significant prostate cancer requires investigation of the genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of the neoplastic cells, and the microenvironment that supports them.

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Journal of Nephrology and Urology
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