Pharmaceutical Microbiology Research work on Antimicrobial Effect of Green Tea Extract on Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of infection worldwide and have resulted in billions of dollars in medical care costs. E. coli is the most important cause of 80- 90% of all UTIs. Uropathogenic E. coli infects the urinary tract by producing special surface proteins (adhesions), which give them the ability to attack the epithelial cells that line the urinary bladder. If pathogenic E. coli is in the bladder, and is not eliminated, it may travel up the ureters to the kidneys and cause pyelonephritis. The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing problem worldwide. A numbers of E. coli isolates have been collected from urine specimens of patients with UTI that are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat UTIs. Therefore, treatment options are replaced with a second or third choice of antibiotics, which are much more expensive. These challenges have been receiving growing interest to find alternative antimicrobial agents from plant extracts that need to be developed and use to control multidrug resistant bacteria. Camellia sinensis (green tea) is one of the most popular beverages in the world and has been reported to have antimicrobial effects against various pathogenic bacteria. Tea can be cultivated in many regions from sea level to high mountains. It is generally safe nontoxic, cheap, and available. These properties make it a very good alternative antimicrobial agent. Many studies on the antibacterial activity have shown that green tea inhibits the growth of E. coli by it is polyphenolic components (also known as catechins). The bactericidal action of catechins is due to its hydrogen peroxide generation. Also, Polyphenols are anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit clinical symptoms of UTIs. Catechins induce production of cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-10, blocking the connection of conjugated R plasmid in E. coli that have bactericidal and antitoxin effects, and decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression which is important in pathogenesis of E. coli infection. Catechin-copper II complexes damage the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli. This work was designed to assist the in-vitro antimicrobial effect of green tea extract against uropathogenic E. coli isolates and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of green tea extract against it.
Green tea extract has in vitro antimicrobial effect on uropathogenic E. coli. Implementation of in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of green tea and the efficacy of its catechins in the treatment of UTIs in future can lead to discover of a new cheaper therapy region.
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