How Societal/Domestic Violence effects on Health of Women


How Societal/Domestic Violence effects on Health of Women

Violence is widespread, affects women of all cultures globally, breeds in silence, and finds legitimacy through cultural norms. Perpretors are partners, husbands, family, and friends. It may be domestic violence (DV), sexual (SV) or other type of violence at home or work or public place, serious violation of women’s rights as human beings. It is important cause of physical, psychological health problems.

Violence against women is widespread, occurs in nearly every country and every culture. In many parts of the world, the marital relationship has the dominance of husband, dependence and obedience of wife who submits/surrenders at the cost of own advancement, self-esteem, and even health. Gender inequalities in everyday life, work, responsibilities, a form of violence remain invisible. Violence means ‘Act that causes or has the potential to cause physical, mental harm and is rooted in gender inequality Heise et al. described violence against women as the most pervasive yet least recognised human rights abuse cutting across geographical, racial, social and economic boundaries in the world WHO defined violence as “The behaviour by an intimate partner or ex-partner that caused physical, sexual or psychological harm and included physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviours”.

However culprits are not only partners but family, friends and alleys too. Domestic violence (DV) includes any form of violence suffered from biological relative, usually women by men of family or relatives. The problem breeds in silence and finds legitimacy through cultural norms. Violence represents a serious violation of women’s rights, an important cause of injury, and is a risk factor for many physical and psychological health problems. Violence is also believed to be as common as many diseases for which routine screening are offered during pregnancy. Violence during pregnancy is being increasingly recognized as a clinical as well as a public health problem because effects of violence during pregnancy could be devastating, immediate and long lasting, for the woman as well as her baby.

Violence is personal, sensitive matter so there are limited planned studies. However, it is being increasingly discussed as global public health issue, human rights violation. Physical injury is most visible form of DV. Between 1-20% of women have been victims of DV during pregnancy too. Early marriage, alcohol, employment, unemployment, abuse as child, poverty, rapid socio economic changes, justification of wife beating are known causes. Studies regarding SV in India revealed cultures that approved violence, harmful gender norms, traditions, violence as accepted means of conflict resolution. Besides DV/SV, mental, financial violence also continue as decisions about financial spending, health care are made by men. Physical violence may cause fracture, other injuries abdominal, on private parts or pregnant uterus. Pregnancy outcome depends on duration of pregnancy, victimizing events. Many psychological consequences, suicides have been reported. Cost of violence in terms of health care is tremendous.

Journal of Women’s Health and Reproductive Medicine is an interdisciplinary journal that explores clinical, medical, social and economic aspects of female reproductive health and medication worldwide. This scholarly journal thus focuses on a wide range of topics within this field by including research on Pregnancy, menopause, prenatal care, breast cancer, cervical cancer, Osteoarthritis, urinary tract infections, fibroids, infertility, premature birth, breastfeeding, menstruation and menstrual irregularities, andrology, anamnesis, Childbearing, maternal mortality, Obstetric transition, Abortion, obstetrics and gynecology, reproductive endocrinology, In vitro fertilization, menstruation, ovulation, pregnancy, and menopause.

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Best regards
John Kimberly 
Associate Editor
Journal of Women’s Health and Reproductive Medicine