Image processing and computer vision is an important and essential area in today’s world. Several problems can be solved through computer vision techniques. There are a large number of challenges and opportunities that require skills in the field of computer vision in order to address them. Computer vision applications cover each band of the electromagnetic spectrum, and there are numerous applications in every band. This article is targeted to research students, scholars, and researchers who are interested in solving problems in the field of image processing and computer vision. It addresses the opportunities and current trends of computer vision applications in all emerging domains. The research needs are identified through an available literature survey and classified in the corresponding domains. Possible exemplary images are collected from different repositories available for research and shown in this paper. The opportunities mentioned in this paper are explained through the images so that a naive researcher can understand it well before proceeding to solve the corresponding problems. The databases mentioned in this article could be useful for researchers who are interested in solving the problem further. The motivation of the article is to expose current opportunities in the field of image processing and computer vision along with the corresponding repositories. Interested researchers who are working in the field can choose a problem through this article and can obtain experimental images through the cited references for working further.

It is a perception that humans can visualize almost everything in this world; however, this is only true when we visualize through machines. We can see only a limited version through our eyes that falls under the visible spectrum band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The features observable in the visible spectrum are also limited for human eyes because of the various characteristics of an object; e.g., size (we are unable to see items at the nano and micro levels), distance (an object that is too far from us cannot be visualized), covered structure (human eye visibility cannot penetrate a body or real object), vision in the dark (human eyes cannot see without light), vision in fog (human eyes cannot see beyond fog), etc. However, imaging can help us visualize objects in all of the above-mentioned situations. The electromagnetic spectrum defines many bands (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma bands) that are used for imaging as well as other applications [1]. An imaging system is developed in each band of the electromagnetic spectrum, and highly specialized cameras/machines are available to acquire the same. These bands are listed in Table 1 along with types of imaging that concern applications of broad areas.

A large number of existing and future opportunities in the field of image processing and computer vision are identified from the existing literature and listed in this article in their respective categories. The electromagnetic spectrum is covered based on emerging opportunities in the current scenario. Most of the problems are discussed through the example images, which is more appealing and motivating for readers. Many data repositories are also mentioned along with their applications so that an interested researcher can find data for solving a corresponding research problem.

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